Deltachat – First dos, first don’ts

Deltachat is a decentral instant messenger (vulgo, Whatsapp alternative) that uses SMTP and IMAP as its transport medium. I already tried it several years ago but dismissed it as too experimental back then.

At the 37th Chaos Communication Congress I personally got in touch with the Deltachat people and their wholesome anarchist attitude, marveled at their insanely flawless live onboarding process during their talk in front of about 100 listeners, and been closely following the project since.

Here’s a few initial learnings from half a year of using the messenger.

First things first, E-Mail and SMTP are NOT cursed

E-Mail is one of the oldest distributed systems, with redundancy and queueing built-in since eternity, and will always have to deal with reachability issues. If you can’t reach someone, if someone can’t reach you, if either of you receive error messages, get in touch with your postmistresses and -masters. Everyone who is more than 50% serious about running a mail server will be interested in resolving any issues for their users. I certainly am.

If you operate the mail server yourself, get educated on best practices starting from DNS, PTR, EHLO, STARTTLS and SPF up to DKIM. Should your opinions on how to run things inexplicably differ from best practice, acquaint yourself with the idea of being wrong just this one time.


Since the early 2000’s, the commonly accepted limits for message size hardly went up at all. We used to tell our users “e-mail is not a file transfer protocol”, but at this point, the small message size limits have honestly become a bit awful. Google Mail accepts a whopping 150 MB, T-Online 50 MB, and even my own mail exchangers are stuck in the past with 32 MB only.

Some messengers just accept any mindless 4K video upload, this one doesn’t. Attachments on Deltachat are encrypted end-to-end, no service in the middle is going to store them for you, and the messages themselves will be even bigger after encryption and transport-encoding.

When in doubt, upload somewhere and share the link.

If you operate the server yourself, feel free to raise the limit for your own users as far as you like but be aware that they may always encounter issues when interacting with users on other servers and domains.


Groups in Deltachat are a very unusual kind of beast, unlike every other group I’ve seen before.

They are fully decentral and really just resemble a group of users who automatically send e-mails to all others, with control messages that automatically notify everyone of people who are new to the group and have left the group. There is no administration at all; everyone can add and remove anyone, for everyone.

Currently, Deltachat groups are perfect for fully cooperative groups (friends and family), where this administration style even has its benefits because there’s no need to ask person X to do task Y. In hostile environments where the group may be subverted by trolls, they are not the ideal solution.

Don’t change mail accounts (My worst mistake.)

If the random Chatmail address you started out with doesn’t satisfy your vanity anymore, don’t change the mail account in your profile, but start over with a new profile. Direct contacts will need to be informed about your change in address anyway, and you can invite your new profile to groups using your old profile.

If you change mail addresses nevertheless, your PGP key will always carry the mail address you initially created it on, breaking Autocrypt key exchange. Also, your old mail address will forever linger as a “secondary” address in the profile and all sorts of hard-to-understand confusion will set in if it starts showing up from elsewhere in the future.

Don’t change mail accounts. Really.

Add a secondary device

Add a secondary device, e.g. your desktop system. It’s the most casual way of having a backup of your Deltchat profile.

Get your friends on board

It’s just 2½ steps:

  • Install the app.
  • Create a chatmail account (happens semi-automatically in current versions of the app).
  • Have them scan your QR code.

Try it right here.

Post header image: “Sundarbans web” by European Space Agency, CC-BY-NC-SA

Deltachat Push on any IMAP server


Deltachat is a decentral instant messenger (vulgo, Whatsapp alternative) that uses SMTP and IMAP as its transport medium. I already tried it several years ago but dismissed it as too experimental back then.

At the 37th Chaos Communication Congress I personally got in touch with the Deltachat people and their wholesome anarchist attitude, marveled at their insanely flawless live onboarding process during their talk in front of about 100 listeners, and been closely following the project since.

In late 2023/early 2024, the project introduced the Chatmail concept that enables anyone to host Postfix-Dovecot based Deltachat IMAP toasters for easy onboarding with real-time push notifications.

(Nota bene, I had already registered a domain but then decided against running a Chatmail instance because I doubt I have enough spare spoons to run an anonymous operation and/or deal with potential requests from authorities.)


The moment I heard of push for Chatmail, I knew I wanted to figure out how to make it work on my own domain. Since no specification for Chatmail push seemed to be published, I figured out things from the following files in the Chatmail repository:

  • default.sieve – Not as helpful as expected, but providing an important-ish detail for the later implementation.
  • push_notification.lua – Hints towards the existence of a metadata service. Never heard of it so far.
  • dovecot.conf.j2 – First appearance of the metadata service in Dovecot config. TIL. Enabled METADATA and XDELTAPUSH on my own Dovecot and figured out that the client stores a notify-token in IMAP metadata.
  • – Simply posts the notify-token to the Delta notification service.

So essentially, the push system works like this:

  1. Client connects to IMAP and saves its notify-token to the metadata service.
  2. Mail arrives.
  3. push_notification.lua, loaded as the push driver into Dovecot, talks back to the metadata server, which in turn uses for sending.
  4. Client wakes up and connects to IMAP.
  5. Push message appears on screen only if there are unseen messages on the IMAP server. Meaning, if another client is connected as well (and, I believe, running visibly in the foreground), the mail on the server will already be marked seen and no message is displayed.

My alternative implementation needs to replace steps 1-3. Let’s do it.

Independent Push implementation

Executing things, figuring out the push token from IMAP metadata, calling a URL, from Sieve, requires a lot of configuration, so I quickly came back to running an additional IMAP IDLE session from somewhere else, as IdlePush did back in 2009. Instead of adapting the old Perl code or rewriting the IMAP IDLE dance from scratch, I looked for pre-existing building blocks to put together:

  • getmail6 (prepackaged on Debian) is a powerful alternative to fetchmail that can IDLE on an IMAP server and retrieve new messages while leaving them unseen (the way IdlePush did with Mail::IMAPClient‘s $imap->Peek(1);). The retrieved messages can be fed into what I call a custom mail delivery agent.
  • A small Python script serves as the custom MDA.
  • systemd, the old horse, can reliably run getmail as a service.


getmail configuration

getmail demands that its configuration files be saved in ~/.config/getmail, so this is where this configuration goes.

The notify token can be found at the top of the client’s logfile.

# ~/.config/getmail/



Custom mail delivery agent

The custom MDA is already referenced in the config above. Ignoring messages with the Auto-Submitted header was adapted from default.sieve in Chatmail.

The script talks to the notification server at most every 10 seconds per notify-token.

#!/usr/bin/env python3
import sys, requests, re, time
from select import select
from email.feedparser import BytesFeedParser
from pathlib import Path


# See if a message is waiting on stdin -
if select([sys.stdin, ], [], [], 0.0)[0]:
        mailparser = BytesFeedParser()
        message = mailparser.close()
    except Exception as e:
        print(f"While reading message: {e}", file=sys.stderr)

    # Skip if message contains header:
    if message.get('Auto-Submitted') and re.match('auto-(replied|generated)', message.get('Auto-Submitted')):
        print('Skipping: Auto-Submitted', file=sys.stderr)

# Issue notifications to the specified notify-token(s)
for token in sys.argv[1:]:
    print(f"Token: {token}", file=sys.stderr)

    ratelimit_file = f"{Path.home()}/.cache/deltachat-ratelimit-{token}"
    now = int(time.time())
        ratelimit_time = int(Path(ratelimit_file).stat().st_mtime)
        ratelimit_time = 0

    if now - ratelimit_time < 10:
        print('ratelimited', file=sys.stderr)

        r =, token)
    except Exception as e:
        print(f"While talking to {notify_url}: {e}", file=sys.stderr)

    print(f"Notification request submitted, HTTP {r.status_code} {r.reason}", file=sys.stderr)


systemd user unit

I use an instantiated unit that specifies the getmail configuration file and the mailbox (INBOX) on which to IDLE.

# ~/.config/systemd/user/deltachat-push@.service
Description=Push emitter for delta chat

ExecStart=getmail -r %i --idle INBOX



systemctl --user enable --now

Compatibility tested

  • Vanilla Dovecot
  • (yes)
  • (indeed)


journalctl --user-unit deltachat-push@\*.service -f
~/bin/deltachat-push <notify-token>


  • First execution of getmail downloads all mail, so I had to start newly configured getmail configurations without a push token by commenting out the arguments option.
  • May be considered abuse of the Chatmail infrastructure? I definitely use it sensibly, on an IMAP mailbox that is dedicated to Deltchat only. Someone is paying actual time and effort for running that notification relay.
  • Impact of plans for encrypting the notify-token unclear.

This is not a nice post. This is a post about Gnome/GDM customization.

I recently got the opportunity to work on adapting the default Debian Gnome experience to a client’s corporate design, and it felt a LOT like reverse-engineering deeply into the undocumented.

I found the work to fall into a number of categories, which I will classify as “dconf policy”, “css”, “xml-manifest” and “packaging”.

GDM logodconf policy, packaging
GDM banner messagedconf policy
GDM background colorcss, xml-manifest
GDM wallpapercss, xml-manifest, packaging
Gnome default wallpaperdconf policy, packaging
Gnome default themedconf policy
Gnome shell pluginsdconf policy, packaging
Gnome UI and plugin defaultsdconf policy
Gnome wallpapersxml-manifest

Note I’m not familiar with any underlying Gnome/GTK philosopy aspects but come from a Linux engineering role and just need to get the job done.


The “packaging” class really just means that required assets need to be packaged onto the system and that any shell plugins that should be enabled by default, must be installed.


The GDM-Settings workflow

For GDM customization, GDM-Settings proved immensely helpful for identifying where to make changes.

# Install via flatpak
sudo apt-get install flatpak gnome-software-plugin-flatpak
flatpak remote-add --if-not-exists flathub
flatpak -y install io.github.realmazharhussain.GdmSettings

# Keep track of where we started off
touch /tmp/now

# Run gdm-settings
flatpak run io.github.realmazharhussain.GdmSettings

# See what changed
find / -type f -newer /tmp/now 2>/dev/null | egrep -v '^/(dev|run|proc|sys|home|var|tmp)'

For this post, I will stick with the default dconf policy filename used by GDM-Settings.

Logo and banner

# /etc/dconf/db/gdm.d/95-gdm-settings
banner-message-text='Welcome to VIMnux'

dconf needs an accompanying profile definition, /etc/dconf/profile/gdm:


dconf update needs to be run after modifying these files.

Background color and wallpaper

GDM background settings are hidden deep in the global gnome-shell theme CSS, which itself is hidden in /usr/share/gnome-shell/gnome-shell-theme.gresource.

GDM-Settings completely hides the tedious process of drilling down to the CSS away from the user, which is great from a user perspective, but not what I needed for my customizations. I went with the following workflow for unpacking the files. gresource list lists the file names contained in the gresource file, gresource extract extracts them one by one.

# Unpack /usr/share/gnome-shell/gnome-shell-theme.gresource
# to a temporary directory:
T=$(mktemp -d /tmp/gres.XXX); printf "Resources tempdir: %s\n" $T
cd $T
while read R
  gresource extract /usr/share/gnome-shell/gnome-shell-theme.gresource $R > $(basename $R)
done < <(gresource list /usr/share/gnome-shell/gnome-shell-theme.gresource)

At this point, the only file I’m interested in is gnome-shell.css, where I set a black background for my application.

.login-dialog { background: transparent; }
#lockDialogGroup { background-color: rgb(0,0,0); }

Similar CSS for a wallpaper:

.login-dialog { background: transparent; }
#lockDialogGroup {
  background-image: url('file:///usr/share/backgrounds/gnome/wood-d.webp');
  background-position: center;
  background-size: cover;

Reassembly of the gresource file requires an XML manifest which I generate using the following script,

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import os, sys, glob
import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
from io import BytesIO

gresources = ET.Element('gresources')
gresource = ET.SubElement(gresources, 'gresource', attrib = {'prefix': '/org/gnome/shell/theme'})
for resourcefile in glob.glob('*'):
    file = ET.SubElement(gresource, 'file')
    file.text = resourcefile

out = BytesIO()
xmldoc = ET.ElementTree(gresources)
xmldoc.write(out, encoding='utf-8', xml_declaration=True)

First generate the XML manifest, then compile the gresources file.

# Generate XML
./ $T > gnome-shell-theme.gresource.xml

# Compile gresources (glib-compile-resources from libglib2.0-dev-bin)
glib-compile-resources gnome-shell-theme.gresource.xml --sourcedir=$T --target=gnome-shell-theme.gresource

Someone over here decided to indirect /usr/share/gnome-shell/gnome-shell-theme.gresource via /etc/alternatives, do whatever you like.

Note that on the systems I tested this on, gdm.css and gdm3.css could be left out of the gresource file and all changes were made in gnome-shell.css.

Gnome Wallpapers

Speaking of XML, Wallpapers can be installed to someplace intuitive such as /usr/share/backgrounds/corporate but must be accompanied by another XML manifest in /usr/share/gnome-background-properties, which I generate using another XML generator,

#!/usr/bin/env python3

import os, sys, glob
import xml.etree.ElementTree as ET
from io import BytesIO

wallpapers = ET.Element('wallpapers')
for wallpaper in glob.glob('*'):
    wallpaper_element = ET.SubElement(wallpapers, 'wallpaper', attrib = {'deleted': 'false'})
    filename = ET.SubElement(wallpaper_element, 'filename')
    filename.text = f"{dirname}/{wallpaper}"
    name = ET.SubElement(wallpaper_element, 'name')
    name.text = wallpaper
    options = ET.SubElement(wallpaper_element, 'options')
    options.text = 'zoom'
    pcolor = ET.SubElement(wallpaper_element, 'pcolor')
    pcolor.text = '#000000'
    scolor = ET.SubElement(wallpaper_element, 'scolor')
    scolor.text = '#ffffff'

out = BytesIO()
xmldoc = ET.ElementTree(wallpapers)
print('<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>')
print('<!DOCTYPE wallpapers SYSTEM "gnome-wp-list.dtd">')

Which I run as follows:

./ backgrounds > corporate.xml

/usr/share/backgrounds/corporate/* and /usr/share/gnome-background-properties/corporate.xml then get packaged onto the system.

Gnome Extensions and Defaults

At this point, a dconf user profile needs to be introduced:

$ cat /etc/dconf/profile/user 

(Things get easier from here.)

Default-enabled extensions

I chose to enable the extensions and set related defaults in /etc/dconf/db/local.d/99-extensions:

enabled-extensions=[ '', 'no-overview@fthx', '', '', '' ]


dconf update needs to be run after modifying this file.

Other Gnome defaults

dconf watch /

dconf watch / in a terminal makes it possible to take note of what configuration options change as changes are being made. They can now be made the defaults in a policy file such as /etc/dconf/db/local.d/99-misc-defaults:




dconf update needs to be run after modifying this file.

tl;dr: Example customization package

A debian package that provides live examples, can be found here:

Too good to #0012

Today: Mounting tar archives, a novel take on uptime, ipxe escapes.

ratarmountAccess large archives as a filesystem efficiently, e.g., TAR, RAR, ZIP, GZ, BZ2, XZ, ZSTD archives

$ virtualenv ~/.local/ratarmount
$ ~/.local/ratarmount/bin/pip3 install -U ratarmount
$ ~/.local/ratarmount/bin/ratarmount
$ install -D ~/.local/ratarmount/bin/ratarmount ~/bin/

$ mkdir -p ~/mnt
$ curl -O
$ ratarmount tzdata-latest.tar.gz ~/mnt
$ find ~/mnt
$ fusermount -u ~/mnt

tuptimeReport historical and statistical real time of the system, keeping it between restarts. Total uptime

tuptime calculates overall uptime of the system it’s running on. It also flags shutdowns as “BAD” if it comes up without having been gracefully stopped before.

As I grew up in an age where uptime braggery was common even among professionals, my entirely unreasonable use case here is to determine uptime since the previous unclean shutdown:

function tuptime-graceful () {
        local tuptime_since=1
        local temp_array
        while read -r line 
                if [[ "${line}" =~ ' BAD ' ]]
                        read -r -a temp_array <<< "${line}"
                        tuptime_since=$(( temp_array[0] + 1 ))
        done < <(tuptime --table --order e --reverse)
        tuptime --since "${tuptime_since}"

Ampersand in ipxe script

Example is from a Debian preseed environment where preseed/late_command downloads and executes a shell script

set amp &
set latecmd in-target wget ${script_url} ${amp}${amp} in-target bash
kernel [...] preseed/late_command="${latecmd}"

Vollständige Liste aller Amazon-Alternativen

Vielen Dank für eure Aufmerksamkeit. Es folgt eine unvollständige Liste einiger weniger Amazon-Alternativen.

Ich sage nicht, dass ich Amazon nicht benutze oder ihr Amazon nicht benutzen sollt. Ich sage lediglich, dass ich diese Shops bereits alternativ benutzt habe. (Updates folgen.)


Elektro- und Elektronikmaterial


Verbrauchs- und Bastelmaterial


Drogerie / Körperpflege


Aus dem Feedback

(Von mir ungetestet, aber aus vertrauenswürdigen Quellen.)

Failsafe curl

Nothing serious, just a few notes I like to share with friends and colleagues who, like me, script around curl.

curl -f / --fail

I try to use --fail whenever I can, because why would I want to exit zero on server errors?

$ curl -L
<title>404 Not Found</title>
<h1>Not Found</h1>
<p>The requested URL was not found on this server.</p>
<address>Apache/2.4.41 (Ubuntu) Server at Port 443</address>
$ echo $?
$ curl -f -L
curl: (22) The requested URL returned error: 404
$ echo $?

curl --fail-with-body

I have a CI/CD situation where curl calls a webhook and it’s incredibly useful to see its error message in case of failure.

$ curl --fail
curl: (22) The requested URL returned error: 405
$ curl --fail-with-body
curl: (22) The requested URL returned error: 405
XML-RPC server accepts POST requests only.

set -o pipefail

When curl‘s output gets piped to any other command, I try to remember to set -o pipefail along with curl --fail so if curl fails, the pipe exits non-zero.

#!/usr/bin/env bash


if curl -s -f -L "${url}" | sha256sum
        echo "Success."
        echo "Failure."

set -o pipefail

if curl -s -f -L "${url}" | sha256sum
        echo "Success."
        echo "Failure."

curl --connect-timeout

Useful to get quicker response in scripts instead of waiting for the system’s default timeouts.

curl -w / --write-out

This may be over the top most of the time, but I have one situation that requires extremely detailed error handling. (The reason being a bit of a foul split DNS situation in the environment, long story.) This is where I use --write-out to analyze the server response.

curl_http_status="$(curl -o "${tmpfile}" --write-out '%{http_code}\n' "${url}")"

Update: curl versions from 8.3.0 allow writing out to files.

curl -o "${tmpfile}" --write-out '%output{http_status.txt}%{http_code}' "${url}"
curl_http_status="$(< http_status.txt)"

curl -n / --netrc / [ --netrc-file ]

Username:password authentication is a thing, no matter how much it’s discouraged. Here’s how to at least hide username and password from the process list.

$ chmod 600 ~/.netrc
$ cat ~/.netrc
login foo
password bar
$ curl -v -o /dev/null -n
* Server auth using Basic with user 'foo'

To use any other file instead of ~/.netrc, use --netrc-file instead.

Too good to #0011

Mozilla Firefox APT special

The Mozilla Firefox APT repository is incompatible with legacy apt-mirror. Here’s how I install apt-mirror2 as a dedicated python-virtualenv

# apt-get install virtualenv
# virtualenv --no-setuptools /usr/local/apt-mirror2/
# /usr/local/apt-mirror2/bin/pip3 install -U apt-mirror
# /usr/local/apt-mirror2/bin/apt-mirror --help
  • Repeat as-is to update.
  • Here’s the bug that neccessitates the --no-setuptools option: “ModuleNotFoundError: No module named ‘debian'”

mirror.list entry for the Mozilla Firefox APT repository:

deb-all [signed-by=/path/to/packages-mozilla-org.gpg] mozilla main
deb-amd64 [signed-by=/path/to/packages-mozilla-org.gpg] mozilla main

How to convert Mozilla’s sloppy ASCII-armored PGP key:

$ curl -s -O
$ file repo-signing-key.gpg
repo-signing-key.gpg: PGP public key block Secret-Key
$ mv repo-signing-key.gpg repo-signing-key
$ gpg --dearmor repo-signing-key
$ file repo-signing-key.gpg
repo-signing-key.gpg: OpenPGP Public Key Version 4, Created Tue May 4 21:08:03 2021, RSA (Encrypt or Sign, 2048 bits); User ID; Signature; OpenPGP Certificate

Too good to #0010

In today’s installment:

  • “Headless” Nextcloud
  • Monitoring of fork activity

Mount Nextcloud files via rclone+Webdav, as a systemd user unit

# ~/.config/systemd/user/nextcloud-mount.service
Description=Mount Nextcloud via rclone-webdav

ExecStartPre=mkdir -p %h/Nextcloud
ExecStart=rclone mount --vfs-cache-mode full --verbose nextcloud_webdav: %h/Nextcloud/
ExecStop=fusermount -u %h/Nextcloud/
ExecStopPost=rmdir %h/Nextcloud


Sync instead of mount

Nextcloud via Webdav is absurdly slow, so maybe use nextcloudcmd instead, which unfortunately does not have its own daemonization:

# ~/.netrc (chmod 600)
login myuser
password *** (app password)
# ~/.config/systemd/user/nextcloudcmd.service
Description=nextcloudcmd (service)

ExecStart=nextcloudcmd -n --silent %h/Nextcloud
# ~/.config/systemd/user/nextcloudcmd.timer
Description=nextcloudcmd (timer)



forkstat (8) – a tool to show process fork/exec/exit activity

High load without a single obvious CPU consuming process (not related to the Nextcloud shenanigans above) led me to forkstat(8):

Forkstat is a program that logs process fork(), exec(), exit(), coredump and process name change activity. It is useful for monitoring system behaviour and to track down rogue processes that are spawning off processes and potentially abusing the system.

$ sudo forkstat # (that's all)

Das Rezept für gebrannte Mandeln

Auf vielfachen vereinzelten Wunsch, und für den Fall, dass die Primärquelle, bei der ich mich zwecks Abwandlung bedient habe, irgendwann aus dem Internet verschwindet, hier mein Rezept für gebrannte Mandeln.

Die Zubereitung ist eine ziemliche Geduldsprobe, dafür kann man aber außer bei der Karamellisierung fast nichts verkehrt machen, und sogar dann sind nicht so gut gelungene gebrannte Mandeln immer noch: Gebrannte Mandeln.


45 Minuten

Zutaten für eine große Bratpfanne

  • 250 g Mandeln mit Haut
  • 150 g Zucker
  • 1 Beutel Vanillezucker
  • Einen gestrichenen Teelöffel Zimt, dazu zu Weihnachten gern einen Hauch Muskat, Nelken, Anis, Piment oder Pfeffer.
  • Etwas Wasser, ca. 100 ml


  • Große Bratpfanne, beschichtet mit dem guten Mikroplastik
  • Holzlöffel
  • Backpapier
  • 2 Gabeln


  • 50 g Zucker mit Vanillezucker und den Gewürzen verrühren und für später aufheben.
  • 100 g Zucker mit gerade so wenig Wasser in die Pfanne geben, dass sich der Zucker auflösen kann.
  • Das Zucker-Wasser-Gemisch aufkochen.
  • Die Mandeln hinzugeben, und so lange bei höchster Hitze rühren, bis das Wasser verdampft ist und der Zucker kristallisiert. Danach noch kurz weiterrühren, bis an den ersten Mandeln braun glänzende Stellen zu erkennen sind.
  • Temperatur runterregeln (bei mir von 9 auf 6), die Mandeln gleichmäßig verteilen und den restlichen Zucker mit den Gewürzen gut verteilt drüberstreuen.
  • Ununterbrochen rühren, bis die Mandeln karamellisiert sind. Die Temperatur so niedrig halten, dass sich keine schwappende Karamellsoße in der Pfanne sammelt. Alles was flüssig ist, muss von den Mandeln sofort angenommen werden können.
  • Wenn die Mandeln nicht mehr krustig, sondern schön karamellisiert sind, den Pfanneninhalt so weit und locker wie möglich auf einem Bogen Backpapier verteilen, die Mandeln mit zwei Gabeln soweit möglich vereinzeln und abkühlen lassen.

Frohe Weihnachten, lasst es euch schmecken.

Die 15-Euro-Schieblehre

Kurz nachdem ich vor einer Weile meinen guten Messschieber (Amazon-Link ohne Affiliation) bekommen hatte, hat mich bereits zufällig die 15-Euro-Schieblehre vom Bauhaus angelacht. Preislich lässt sie ganz Amazon hinter sich und Ebay gleich mit, und ich musste heute dem Drang nachgeben, sie für “draußen” anzuschaffen.

Zwei Messchieber übereinander abgebildet, sie messen jeweils eine rostige Mutter mit 22 mm Schlüsselweite.

Etwas kratzig ist ihre Qualitätsanmutung schon, speziell beim Drehen des Rädchens und Spiel ist vorhanden und messbar, aber zumindest nicht als Klapprigkeit zwischen den Fingern spürbar. Zwischen mm/inch kann per einfachem Tastendruck umgeschaltet werden, die Verarbeitung am Austritt des Tiefenmaß finde ich sogar deutlich schöner als bei der Helios-Preisser. Für Preis/Leistung zu einem Siebtel des Preises gibts von mir den Daumen nach oben. 👍

What goes up, must come down. Ask any system administrator.