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February 14, 2009

Re-Layering LVM encryption

Filed under: Security, UNIX & Linux — Tags: , , — martin @ 11:48 pm

In an earlier article, I had promised live migration of LVM data to encrypted storage. I was able to acquire an external SATA disk for my backup server today, so here we go. 🙂

crypt-lvm1

The backup server is running headless, so I opted to store the key locally for now. Yes, I’m a moron. But hey, at least it’s not on the same medium.

# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/etc/luks.key count=256 ; chmod 600 /etc/luks.key

As long as the disk isn’t the only one, I can’t predict the device name it will come up as. Thus, it is referenced by its udev ID when formatting it with LUKS:

# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-SATA_WD_My_Book_WD-WCAU123-part1 /etc/luks.key

Open the new LUKS device:

# cryptsetup luksOpen -d /etc/luks.key /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-SATA_WD_My_Book_WD-WCAU123-part1 pv_crypt_1

The entry in /etc/crypttab makes the encrypted device come up on boot:

/etc/crypttab:

pv_crypt_1 /dev/disk/by-id/scsi-SATA_WD_My_Book_WD-WCAU123-part1 /etc/luks.key luks

Create a new Physical Volume on the crypted device:

# pvcreate /dev/mapper/pv_crypt_1

Now the Volume Group can be extended with the new PV:

# vgextend datavg /dev/mapper/pv_crypt_1

I rebooted at this point, in order to see if everything would come up as expected.

The new PV is now visible:

# pvs
  PV         VG     Fmt  Attr PSize   PFree
  /dev/dm-0  datavg lvm2 a-   931.51G 931.51G
  /dev/sdb1  datavg lvm2 a-   465.76G      0

The next step is to migrate the VG content to the new PV. Migration will take a very long time if the disk is full, so you may want to use a screen session for this.

# pvmove -v  /dev/sdb1

This is a classical LVM operation that may be cancelled at any time and picked up later. In fact, my Promise SATA driver crashed hard in the middle of the operation, and everything went along fine after a kernel upgrade.

When pvmove is done, throw out the original PV from the volume group:

# vgreduce datavg /dev/sdb1

The Volume Group is now on encrypted storage.

January 18, 2009

Managing encrypted logical volumes

Filed under: Security, UNIX & Linux — Tags: , , — martin @ 1:32 pm

Worked on this with G. the other day.

Create the underlying logical volume:
lvcreate -n datalv_crypted -L 1G vg00

Initialize a LUKS crypto device on the logical volume:
cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/vg00/datalv_crypted

If you have lost your mind and want to keep the passphrase in a file (which is what G.’s weirdo client had asked for):
dd if=/dev/urandom of=/etc/i_am_dumb count=256
cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/vg00/datalv_crypted /etc/i_am_dumb

Bring up the crypto device from the encrypted logical volume:
cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/vg00/datalv_crypted data # optionally -d /etc/i_am_dumb

Create a file system on the crypto device, /dev/mapper/data, which has now sprung to life:
mkfs.ext3 /dev/mapper/data

Enter the crypto device in /etc/fstab:
/dev/mapper/data /data ext3 defaults 0 0

Don’t forget to create the mount point:
mkdir /data

Enter the encrypted logical volume in /etc/crypttab. Substitute “none” with /etc/i_am_dumb if you are keeping the passphrase on the system.
data /dev/vg00/datalv_crypted none luks

Reboot. You will be prompted for the passphrase on bootup, unless you’re keeping it in a file. The new file system will be mounted on /data.

The usual process for resizing file systems now has to be extended by an additional step:

lvresize -L +1G /dev/vg00/datalv_crypted
cryptsetup resize /dev/mapper/data
resize2fs /dev/mapper/data

That’s all there is to it. In another installment, I will hopefully write about encrypted physical volumes, allowing live migration of an entire volume group to encrypted storage during full operation. 🙂

With the technical details out of the way, some additional words about keeping the passphrase on-disk:

If you work for someone who wants this, he’s not neccessarily an idiot, but maybe just a bit naive. It is your duty as the expert to explain why keeping the passphrase in-band with the encrypted data is nothing more than just a waste of CPU cycles. Seriously. This, G., means you. 😉

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